Information on the academic achievements of academic staff is used to disseminate information on the results of scientific research and to establish contacts between scientists and between science and business. Increasingly, based on publication metadata, the authors and scientific entities are also assessed and decisions on the allocation of funds for research and education are made.

The obligation to document the literary achievements of university employees traditionally lies with libraries. Most university libraries have prepared them almost from the very beginning, first in printed and then in electronic form. Now that you can go for the write a paper for me option, you can find the best deals now.

The New Technologies Now

New technologies have created the possibility of a wider use of bibliographic databases, which more and more often serve not only as a source of information about university employees’ publications and its visiting card, but also as a source of data facilitating parametric assessment of the scientific achievements of employees and scientific units, which in turn translates into the financing of these units by ministries and the possibility of obtaining funding from other sources, e.g. from grants. One of the important criteria in national and international rankings of universities are publications of university employees and the strength of their impact (citations). The new functions of university bibliographies generate new needs and expectations of their users, the fulfillment of which requires expanding the scope of collected and processed data, often also with non- bibliographic information.

The Right Terms

The term ‘information’, although commonly used, is defined and understood differently. Harod’s Librarians’ Glossary defines information briefly as a dataset in a comprehensible form that enables communication. Information, in particular scientific information, is often located between so-called raw data and knowledge. It is also difficult to precisely define the term “publication”, which in the said source is defined as a work submitted to the public in the form of a document or book. The publication provides for the dissemination of copies of the work that can be read or otherwise visually perceived.

  • Such definition of publications, as well as many other definitions and terms functioning in various Polish sources (including legal acts), set libraries to the task of classifying various materials submitted by the authors as their publishing output and, if possible, precisely defining the scope of data collected in university bibliographic databases . The task is difficult because, apart from traditional books and articles on various media, they are increasingly fragments or entire works (e.g. research reports, articles, books) placed only in institutional or domain repositories, scientific services and portals, and even in social networking sites of scientists and science blogs.


For this reason, to evaluate and interpret information in derived sources, which are university bibliographies, you need at least basic knowledge about the principles of their functioning (e.g. about the principles of data collection and verification, their chronological scope and scope). This information can be found on library websites, most often in the descriptions of created resources or in the guidelines for authors, as well as in internal legal acts regulating the principles of creating bibliography of publications of university employees.

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